Climate change might be considered as the greatest threat to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Africa as it has potential to perpetuate poverty, migration, and disrupt agriculture productivity and food systems. Moreover, climate change vulnerability on the continent has arguably been increasing as many African countries have failed to integrate their climate change programmes and strategies with national economic and development planning. Through an inductive analysis based on research articles, case studies, policy briefs, and academic literature reviews, this paper seeks to highlight the policies and innovations that can potentially increase the resilience of Africa’s food systems to climate change whilst simultaneously facilitating improved electricity access and financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper identified that agriculture resilience and rural development is mainly constrained by ineffective rural electrification programmes and a lack of microfinance services to improve financial inclusion in rural areas. Consequently, the successful implementation of SDG 2 (no hunger) in Sub-Saharan Africa may be enhanced by implementing socio-economic policies and strategies that can build human and institutional capacity of various local stakeholders to increase investments in Africa’s agriculture sector by leveraging private investments with climate finance.